Mountain Laurel Environmental | GLOSSARY OF TERMS
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GLOSSARY

Aboveground Storage Tank (AST)

A container (usually for holding liquids and sometimes for compressed gases) and any underground piping connected to the container that has at least 10 percent of its combined volume underground.

Action Level List for Private Wells

A list of common contaminants and concentrations above which the contaminants may present a health risk to those who use private wells as a source of water for drinking, bathing, washing, or cooking. The list is maintained by the Connecticut Department of Public Health (CTDPH).

Area of Concern (AOC)

Any portion of a property which may be polluted as a result of the historic or current releases of chemicals or waste to soil, surface water, and/or groundwater.

Brownfields

Industrial or commercial properties that remain abandoned or underutilized in part because of the presence or perceived presence of environmental pollution.

Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA)

AKA “Superfund”; a United States federal law which provides broad federal authority to clean up releases or threatened releases of hazardous substances that may endanger public health or the environment. The law authorized the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) to identify parties responsible for contamination of sites and compel the parties to clean up the sites. Where responsible parties cannot be found, the Agency is authorized to clean up sites itself, using a special trust fund.

Connecticut Department of Energy and Environmental Protection (DEEP)

A Connecticut State agency which oversees the natural resources and environment of the state, as well as regulating public utilities and energy policy. The agency was created on July 1, 2011, by the merging of two other state agencies, the Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection and the Connecticut Department of Public Utility Control.

Due Diligence

Evaluation of the environmental condition of a parcel of land, often required by lending institutions as part of a real estate transaction.

Environmental Land Use Restriction (ELUR)

An easement granted to the Commissioner of DEEP by a property owner and recorded on the municipal land records. The purpose of an ELUR is to minimize the risk of human exposure to pollutants and hazards to the environment by preventing specific uses or activities at a property or a portion of a property.

Establishment

In Connecticut, any real property at which or any business operation from which: (A) on or after November 19, 1980, there was generated, except as the result of remediation of polluted soil, groundwater, or sediment, more than one hundred kilograms of hazardous waste in any one month; (B) hazardous waste generated at a different location was recycled, reclaimed, reused, stored, handled, treated, transported, or disposed of; (C) the process of dry cleaning was conducted on or after May 1, 1967; (D) furniture stripping was conducted on or after May 1, 1967; or (E) a vehicle body repair facility was located on or after May 1, 1967.

Innocent Landowner Defense

A portion of SARA which provides protection from liability to persons who could demonstrate that they ``did not know and had no reason to know`` prior to purchasing a property that any hazardous substance was disposed of on, in, or at the property. Prior to (or on the date of) acquisition of the property, the owner must conduct ``all appropriate inquiries`` into the previous ownership and uses of the property consistent with good commercial or customary standards and practices.

Licensed Environmental Professional (LEP)

In Connecticut, individuals who are allowed to investigate and remediate contaminated sites under State environmental programs and to verify that a parcel has been investigated in accordance with prevailing standards and guidelines and remediated in accordance with the Remediation Standard Regulations (RSRs). Licensing requirements include education minimums, experience minimums, and a passing grade on a licensing exam.

National Primary Drinking Water Regulations (NPDWRs or primary standards)

Legally enforceable federal standards that apply to public water systems. Primary standards protect public health by limiting the levels of contaminants in drinking water.

National Secondary Drinking Water Regulations (NSDWRs or secondary standards)

Federal non-enforceable guidelines regulating contaminants that may cause cosmetic effects (such as skin or tooth discoloration) or aesthetic effects (such as taste, odor, or color) in drinking water. USEPA recommends secondary standards to water systems but does not require systems to comply.

Phase I Environmental Site Assessment

An evaluation of the current and historical chemical uses and waste generation at a property, consisting of a physical inspection of the property and review of available local, State, and Federal file material. The goal of the Phase I is to determine the nature and most likely location of pollution, and the potential impact to human health and the environment.

Phase II Environmental Site Investigation

An evaluation of a property based on the results of the Phase I, and consisting of the collection of a limited number soil, groundwater, and/or surface water samples. The goal of the Phase II is to determine the presence or absence of pollution in each Area of Concern.

Phase III Environmental Site Investigation

An evaluation of a property based on the results of the Phase II, and consisting of the collection of a soil, groundwater, and/or surface water samples. The goal of the Phase II is to determine the degree (severity) and extent (vertical and horizontal distribution) of pollution in each Area of Concern.

Potable Water Program

A Connecticut State program created in the early 1980s to ensure that safe drinking water is available to residents whose well water is found to be polluted as a result of improper disposal, handling, or storage of chemicals.

Property Transfer Program

A Connecticut State program which requires the disclosure of environmental conditions when the ownership of certain real properties and/or businesses (known as ``establishments``) is transferred. When ownership of an establishment is transferred, one of eight Property Transfer Forms must be executed, a copy of the form must be filed with the Department of Energy & Environmental Protection, and the property must be investigated in accordance with prevailing standards and guidelines and remediated in accordance with the Remediation Standard Regulations.

RCRA Closure

The investigation of areas at a facility where chemicals and/or hazardous waste were used, stored, or transported in order to determine of such hazardous chemicals or waste was released to the environment, as required under RCRA.

RCRA Corrective Action

The remediation chemical and/or hazardous waste releases to the environment in accordance with the requirements of the RCRA program.

Remediation

The process of rendering pollution harmless by removal and off-site disposal, on-site treatment, encapsulation, or isolation, as appropriate.

Remediation Standard Regulations

Guidance and standards developed by the State of Connecticut that may be used at any site to determine whether or not remediation of pollution is necessary to protect human health and the environment. The RSRs contain numeric and narrative standards for the remediation of soil and groundwater.

Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA)

Enacted in 1976, RCRA is the principal Federal law in the United States governing the storage and disposal of solid waste and hazardous waste. The goal of the law is to ensure that current storage and disposal of solid waste and hazardous waste does not negatively impact human health or the environment.

Significant Environmental Hazard Program

A Connecticut program which requires the owner of property which is the source or location of pollution and causing a defined potential risk to the environment to notify the Department of Energy & Environmental Protection (DEEP) after they become aware of such conditions.

Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA)

A 1986 law which made several important changes and additions to CERCLA including increasing the funding of Superfund to $8.5 billion, providing for studies and the use of new technologies, and creating an ``innocent landowner`` defense.

Technical Environmental Professional (TEP)

Anyone, including a licensed environmental professional, who collects soil, water, vapor, or air samples to investigate and remediate soil or water pollution as an employee or consultant of a public or private employer.

Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA)

1976 regulations that provide EPA with authority to require reporting, record-keeping and testing requirements, and restrictions relating to chemical substances and/or mixtures with the goal of preventing pollution in the future. Certain substances are generally excluded from TSCA, including, among others, food, drugs, cosmetics and pesticides.

Underground Storage Tank (UST)

A container (usually for holding liquids and sometimes for compressed gases) and any underground piping connected to the container that has at least 10 percent of its combined volume underground. Under Connecticut regulations certain tanks are excluded from the definition (for example, farm or residential tanks of 1,100 gallons or less capacity used for storing motor fuel for noncommercial purposes and tanks used for storing heating oil for consumptive use on the premises).

United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA)

An agency of the federal government of the United States charged with protecting human health and the environment, by writing and enforcing regulations based on laws passed by Congress. The agency was created in 1970.

Voluntary Remediation Program

Two Connecticut State programs, each consisting of an elective process for property owners to expedite the remediation of pollution prior to the sale of the property.